Date: Sat, 9 Apr 1994 06:41:48 -0400 From: aa765@FreeNet.Carleton.CA (Brian Graham) Subject: Re: blueprint DISCUSSION DRAFT BLUEPRINT FOR RENEWING GOVERNMENT SERVICES USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Disponible en franais Message from the President of the Treasury Board Rapid technological change is creating opportunities to deliver services in ways that are more accessible, responsive and affordable. In many areas, the federal government is on the leading edge in using information technology to improve service to its clients. In other areas, however, where we still have a way to go. The serious fiscal challenges facing the country mean that we need to look at how we can do things better. The Blueprint provides an integrated approach to renewing government services using information technology in a manner that capitalizes on our strengths and makes the best use of our investments. I see the key to its success being tapping the expertise, commitment and imagination of all Public Service employees. We are making the plan widely available because it is important we all agree on the best way to deliver government services in the future. I invite you to send in your suggestions on renewing government services. Your comments can make a difference. Art Eggleton Foreword Mounting fiscal pressures force all governments to provide services to clients with continuously shrinking budgets. The "Blueprint for Renewing Government Services Using Information Technology" proposes a vision of affordable, accessible and responsive federal government services and an integrated approach to help achieve this vision. The Blueprint takes a fresh, enterprise-wide look at government services using a client focus. It recommends creating, managing, and prudently sharing information electronically among departments and their different services in a way which protects the security and privacy of the information. It envisages the use of a government-wide electronic information infrastructure to simplify service delivery, reduce duplication, and improve the level and speed of service to clients at a lower cost to the taxpayers. The Blueprint emphasizes the critical importance of employees. Their involvement and commitment are essential to successful business renewal. In this vein, information technology will be applied in a manner to improve the "human face of government" as well as the efficiency and affordability of service delivery. The Blueprint builds on the experience gained from renewal activities already under way in program delivery and administrative areas of the federal government. Many departmental staff specialists and line managers have contributed to the document. This Blueprint is being circulated in draft form in order to get a wide range of views on its principles from both inside and outside of government. In its final form, it will establish a framework for using information technology to support government-wide service renewal. The vision and principles enunciated in the Blueprint will assist all departments and agencies in implementing their own renewal initiatives. We value your input and encourage you to provide us with your comments by May 31, 1994. To facilitate this, you can contact the Blueprint team in one of four ways: (1) by sending an E-mail through X.400 to C=ca; A=govmt.canada;P=gc+tbs.cts;S=chu;G=tony; (2) by calling Bernie Gorman at (613) 957-9645 or Tony Chu at 952-3366; (3) by returning the facsimile response sheet attached at the back of the Blueprint; or (4) by mailing your response to: Tony Chu, Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology, Treasury Board Secretariat, 8th Floor, West Tower, 300 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R5, Canada. J.A. Macdonald Chief Informatics Officer I. D. Clark Secretary of the Treasury Board Acknowledgements The Blueprint is a collective work by many staff specialists and line managers from departments as well as from central and common service agencies. They all contributed to its development by participating in workshops or by reviewing and advising on the Blueprint's development. These individuals include Tony Chu (team leader), Treasury Board Secretariat; Ted Pender, Correctional Service Canada; Rita Moritz, Heritage Canada; Philip Carr, Gary Depew and Claude Fairfield, Human Resources Development Canada; Kate Dobson, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada; Tom Racine, Industry Canada; Bob Provick, National Archives of Canada; Barry Walker, National Defence; Richard Brigden, Bruce Catley, Alain Fortin, Jacques Glinas, Robert Hopwood, Anne La Salle and Joe Sauv, Public Works and Government Services Canada; John Read, Transport Canada; Bob Landry, Western Economic Diversification Canada; Ed Acheson, Paul Baack, Emmanuel Buu, Catherine Caule, Joe Ct, Jim Eddy, Jim Ewanovich, Andr Fauchon, Ron Fauvel, Cliff Filion, Amy Gibbs, John Keay, Bruce Lindsay, Marilla Lo, Don Lusby, John Mayne, Michael Nelson, Jane Panet, Les Pratt, Ngan Ling Tam, Conrad Thomas and Chip Wiest, Treasury Board Secretariat. The Blueprint Program Advisory Committee provided direction for this publication. Consultation with the members of this committee at critical points of the Blueprint's development ensured that its direction was consistent with the needs of departments. The Committee includes Michael Binder (chairperson), Industry Canada; Claude Bernier, Transport Canada; Hy Braiter, Human Resources Development Canada; Paul Cochrane, Health Canada; Brian Ferguson, Treasury Board Secretariat; Willie Gibbs, Correctional Service Canada; Phil McLellan and Ren Guindon, Public Works and Government Services Canada; Richard Manicom, Revenue Canada; Claire Monette, Industry Canada; Monique Plante, Human Resources Development Canada; David Wightman, Transport Canada; and Alan Williams, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Many private-sector specialists provided advice and comments on the methodology, content and format of the Blueprint. They include Art Caston, Jim Grant, Shirley Bishop, Jeff Carruthers, Tony Crawford, John Davis, Ray Healey, David Rothwell, Linda Russell, Pierre Sicard, Bob Simpson, Don Tapscott and Michael Vaughan. In addition to the significant effort by the project team and advisors, the Blueprint would not have been possible without the excellent service for its production. We would like to thank Simonne Lauriault and her team of Lorraine Fournier, Luc Gendron, Lori Lapointe, Franois Perreault and Lillian Saikali of the Client Support Centre; Carole Croteau and Claire Dionne of the Government Systems Division; Nancy Hoyt and her team in Communications and Coordination; Gilles Bisaillon and his team of Suzanne Bgin, Suzanne Henrion, Craig Kennedy, Suzanne Le Blanc, Ginette Lefebvre, Vanessa Novini and Anne Taillefer of Print Communication Services; David Berman; Arnaud Archimbaud, Arlette Harvey and the team in Translation Services. Bernie A. Gorman Executive Director Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology A Perspective Why is Accessible Service at Lower Cost So Important? In the private sector, the pressure for restructuring and renewal has come from increased competitiveness and the unforgiving nature of high costs. Many argue that consumers have become more demanding as they look for better service and quality at a lower price. For governments, the pressure is for better service in the face of reduced revenues and mounting debt. Many consumers of government services appear to have lost their tolerance for bureaucracies. They feel they receive better service from banks, car rental companies, even supermarkets, which have transformed business with innovative information technology. The government increasingly appears to be out of date. Many want to know why they have to spend their precious time finding answers to their questions, after being bounced from department to department, when sometimes (not always) it is easier to get satisfaction from customer-hungry private companies. "Why do I have to call so many places? Why do I have to wait so long? Why can't they solve my problem right here, right now?" These are questions that governments must take seriously. Government must re-invent itself, as other institutions have had to do to survive. Government must fundamentally improve the way it administers its business and delivers its services. What Does Information Technology-Enabled Business Renewal Mean? In today's information age, knowledge workers, freed from organizational constraints and enabled by modern telecommunications and computing technology, can have greater capabilities to access information, to seek solutions and to provide services. The potential is considerable for knowledge workers, acting in concert with one another, to do more work and to do it better. Therein lies the basic thrust of an information-based approach to transforming business. Key components of a business-driven renewal in the information age include: o a clear focus on client service, so that employees can concentrate on providing value-added services; o an organizational culture of continuous learning, personal development and employee involvement in managing change; o empowering individuals to think and plan, access and analyse information, apply knowledge, make decisions and take action; o an organizational structure that is cost-effective, flexible and non-bureaucratic, and that fosters open communication and consultation; o teamwork and partnership, so that workers can take advantage of their knowledge-based environment instead of trying to work alone; o the presence of an information technology infrastructure to provide computing resources, establish connectivity, distribute information and intelligence, and support business renewal; o work processes that are automated, streamlined and interconnected, to create paperless, transparent, integrated business operations designed to serve clients; and o common solutions in functions and processes that can be discovered and then shared broadly across organizations, to reduce duplication and improve service. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This document describes an integrated approach to improving the delivery of government services while significantly reducing associated costs. The integrated approach reflects the recognition that the business of government must be dramatically reassessed, to live within shrinking budgets. Thus, establishing the business rationale for the government service, then determining how the service will be delivered to the clients (the work perspective), are the first two critical steps into a process of renewal outlined in this blueprint. Next, the approach underscores the importance of incorporating an information perspective into any service renewal activity, i.e. knitting related work processes together through proper management and sharing of information. Designing computer applications to automate work processes and to manage and share information is the fourth step in the five-step approach. The final step involves leveraging information technology -- the hardware, software and communications, and their interfaces which comprise the common technology architecture -- to deliver an efficient and effective service to clients. The Blueprint focuses on renewing government services on an enterprise-wide basis and, in so doing, uses information technology to make this possible. The "human face of government" in service delivery must be enhanced, to the benefit of both clients and staff. The Blueprint is designed to capture the broad improvements and full savings that will result from an integrated approach to renewal, not just the incremental benefits reaped when change is piecemeal. As well, an integrated approach reduces the risk of ending up with incompatible and conflicting results. Employees must be involved, committed and focused on improvement. This is the key to change. Successful implementation of the Blueprint hinges on the abilities of employees and the smooth transition of staff to the new work environment. Special consideration must be given to planning, consultation and communication in order to carry out cultural and organizational changes and to resolve the human resources management issues. The Blueprint identifies the need for a government-wide electronic information infrastructure (namely a network of electronic highways and byways and associated information and computing services), with connections to other public or private networks, to support renewal of service delivery. The federal government will explore cost-effective, innovative means to meet its infrastructure needs, such as making use of available systems and forming partnerships with the private sector and other levels of government, rather than relying on unique in-house solutions. The overall benefits of applying this blueprint will be more efficient and effective program delivery, reduced overall costs across government(s), and maintained or even improved customer service in the face of fiscal restraint. The approach proposed in this blueprint builds on the experience gained from program renewal projects under way in such agencies as Revenue Canada, Health Canada, Human Resources Development Canada and Public Works and Government Services Canada, as well as from the Council for Administrative Renewal. o For businesses, Revenue Canada is introducing a Single Business Registration Number which will provide comprehensive, one-stop services, covering initially, the corporate income tax, the goods and services tax, source deductions and importer accounts. This will also reduce duplication and improve government operations. o For income security recipients, the Income Security Program Redesign project at Human Resources Development Canada promises improved turnaround for applications for Canada Pension or Old Age Security. Again, information will be better integrated, making it easier for government staff to create, maintain and query records and provide improved service. Studies are under way to see if the model can be extended to veterans and unemployment insurance applicants. These steps could also lead to a single-window service for persons wishing to deal with the federal government. o For most federal departments, which together handle millions of payments and invoices each year, a new Electronic Procurement and Settlement system from Public Works and Government Services Canada will offer a common, distributed, computer-based solution, eliminating the need for duplicate departmental systems while replacing paper-driven processes. o For federal Public Service employees, a government-wide telecommunications network infrastructure is being developed, which will enable them to contact colleagues anywhere in Canada by electronic mail. It will set the stage for electronic commerce, single access to government information, and electronic delivery of government services to Canadians. It will also trigger significant efficiency gains and reduced duplication of networking facilities. In publishing the Blueprint, a key objective is to actively involve service delivery managers in this integrated approach to renewal. The approach described in the Blueprint should apply to situations within many different departments or agencies. The Blueprint also envisions that experiences will be shared across government(s). The Blueprint provides a vision to guide government service renewal. It describes five different but interrelated architectural views: government businesses, associated work processes, information, system applications and technology. The activities in these five areas must be integrated in support of the renewal of government services. The Blueprint also illustrates future scenarios for delivering government services. Finally, the Blueprint proposes an approach to implementation. The vision, the architectural principles, and the service delivery scenarios are founded on the importance of having a client focus, sharing resources, developing standards, facilitating access to critical information and, above all, recognizing people as key to business renewal. The Vision Government Services That Are Affordable, Accessible, and Responsive o Direct Service to Clients. Delivering and providing easy access to services through electronic means. It envisions bringing services to the clients and providing them with "single-window" access for multiple services (as opposed to developing services with the convenience of the service provider in mind). o Transparent and Seamless Service. Streamlining and integrating processes across functional and organizational lines to provide transparent, seamless services to clients (as opposed to continuing with stovepipe processes that cannot interact with one another). o Value-added Service. Rationalizing operations and empowering knowledge workers to provide value-added services directly to the clients (as opposed to pursuing control-oriented solutions, well-removed from the client interface). o Continuous Learning. Enhancing the knowledge, skills and active participation of employees to ensure they can meet the changing needs of clients and provide quality services in a fair and cost-effective way. o Standardized, Interconnected Tools. Developing a standard suite of interconnected system tools, readily available to management and staff, to support decision- making and service delivery (rather than having a proliferation of different, incompatible and, often, proprietary computer applications). o Shared Solutions. Routinely sharing solutions and resources for common functions and processes and using departmental clusters to share common systems and services, reducing development, maintenance, and/or operating costs (as opposed to each agency or department developing its own unique solutions, at greater overall expense). o Shared Information. Developing and implementing a standards-based electronic information infrastructure consisting of common information, applications, technology platforms and networks to make it possible to share information and computing resources, as well as to rationalize operations enterprise-wide (as opposed to developing isolated islands of information). o Paperless Environment. Redesigning as well as automating routine processes in order to reduce paper and the need for human intervention (as opposed to manual processing or merely automating existing processes). Achievement of this vision of renewal requires five sets of key architectural principles. The Five Architectural Views (Graphics available in printed copy only) - Key Architectural Principles Fundamental to all the principles below is the recognition of the importance of people management, shared values, and a responsive and flexible work environment. The value of investing time and resources in enhancing employees' knowledge, skills and abilities and of involving people in changes must also be recognized as essential to cultural change, renewal and improvement. 1. Business. Government services will need to be transformed to focus on serving clients, on sharing solutions for common functions, on seeking innovative business partnerships, on exploiting information technology and on facilitating accountability. 2. Work. Service delivery will need to be automated, seamless and available through a single window, convenient with options, free from such constraints as functional or organizational barriers, red tape, time and location, and measured against standards for continuous improvement. 3. Information. As a valuable national resource, government information will need to be accessible, secure, captured once and validated close to source, properly maintained to ensure privacy and integrity, and electronically distributed to authorized users. 4. Applications. Computer applications will need to interact freely with one another, have a consistent look and feel, and be modular, re-usable and broadly shared across government. 5. Technology. Information technology will need to be open, flexible, practical, and secure to provide the capability for supporting distributed and accessible computing environments. Table 1 displays the five sets of key architectural principles in greater detail. Table 1 Future Service Delivery Scenarios In the Work View section, six models are offered of ways services can be provided to clients in the near future through applying technology. Note that these models, listed below, are illustrative only. They are designed to provide readers with a more practical view of possible ways of service delivery. o Auto-Service. A client's own computer system generates a service request and the supplier's system provides a response, with minimal human intervention. o Self-Service (electronic). Individual Canadians, businesses or Public Service employees use desktop computer workstations to access information and to generate transactions, orders and payments, resulting in reduced paperwork and fewer approval processes. o Self-Service (walk-in). Internal and external clients seek information, goods and services by visiting common walk-in centres, where Public Service employees use computerized services to respond efficiently and effectively. o Service with On-site Support. An intermediary group or agency provides multiple services, sometimes for numerous clients, maximizing the benefits of information technology and minimizing duplication and paperwork. o Specialist/Expert Service Centre. By using computer connectivity technology, internal and external clients access "experts" in government directly and quickly, reducing the need to duplicate similar services and improving responsiveness to requests. o Supplier Interface (extended enterprise). Suppliers and internal consumers are connected directly to the government's order and payment systems, becoming an extension of these systems. Implementation of the vision and the principles will change the way services are renewed and ultimately delivered to internal and external clients. Benefits and changes for program managers will flow from this implementation. This document sets out an approach to implementation and concludes with the proposed next steps. Implementation Approach The Blueprint is a dynamic, integrated framework for implementing government service renewal over the next five years. It builds on initiatives already under way. The following six elements are critical to its implementation. o Community Leadership. Ministers and deputy ministers, with the strong and effective support of the Chief Informatics Officer, must champion the service renewal in government, recognizing that significant benefits will accrue to departments and their clients. Treasury Board policy centres will provide supporting functional expertise. The Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology will coordinate implementation and provide support in business re-engineering and information technology architectural design. o Commitment to the Vision. Leaders, having espoused the Blueprint's vision, will communicate and explain it to government employees and will seek their effective commitment. This commitment, which will also be sought from potential partners, must be sustained over time, since it constitutes an essential ingredient of change management. o People Management. Strategies and plans must be directed towards involving and committing people; fostering open communication; involving employees in conceptual design and implementation and facilitating their shift to the new culture and structures; assessing composition and competencies of the work force; and resolving the human resources issues associated with the transition and change. o Partnerships. The implementation of the Blueprint will require an effective and sustained partnership among staff within departments. In recognition of the increased interdependencies reflected in the Blueprint, partnerships will also extend to other departments, other levels of government and the private sector. Partnerships must be pursued and promoted aggressively to leverage common requirements, to take advantage of specific skills, to spread risks, and to share experience, innovation and investment. o Forging Ahead for Results. The Blueprint represents an architectural framework that will be implemented and, where necessary, adjusted over time. To accomplish this, a set of service renewal projects will identify change management and technology requirements, develop migration plans, provide incentive through success and begin a government-wide rollout. A government-wide electronic information infrastructure project will support these service renewal projects as they spread across government. o Departmental Implementation. Departments will use the Blueprint in planning and implementing their own internal renewal activities. They will reflect their planned approach to implementation in such planning instruments as annual operational plans and information management plans, starting in fiscal year 1994-95. Overall, the Blueprint does not start at square one, but builds on existing renewal activities and policies (for example, Enhancing Services Through the Innovative Use of Information and Technology: Strategic Direction for the 90s, issued by Treasury Board). The transformation envisaged in the Blueprint will be achieved through continuous improvements. There will be ongoing measuring and monitoring of government service delivery. Next Steps (Graphic available in printed copy only) o Communicate. The draft Blueprint will be communicated to interested parties inside and outside the federal government in order to refine the document, and to obtain feedback, buy-in and departmental participation in pilots. Distributing this document has started the process, which will continue for the next several months. o Endorse the Principles. The Treasury Board Ministers will be asked to adopt the principles set out in the Blueprint as a policy for renewing government services for internal and external clients. The Blueprint will serve as a basis for reviewing, adopting and promoting an integrated, enterprise-wide approach to the delivery of government services, following the consultations. o Review the Requirements. There will be consultation with groups such as the Blueprint Program Advisory Committee, the Advisory Committee on Information Management, the Government Systems Committee, the Council for Administrative Renewal, the Treasury Board Senior Advisory Committee Information Management Subcommittee, and the Treasury Board Senior Advisory Committee, on the requirement for resources, skill sets, methodologies and governance processes. This will take place at the same time as the communication activities. o Launch Service Renewal Projects. The Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology will work with departments and policy centres to select the first wave of renewal projects. The federal government will actively seek out partners in the private sector and other levels of government. Project champions from the community will then organize and plan project implementation; the Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology will support them, as required. This will take place beginning the second half of 1994. o Launch a Government-wide Electronic Information Infrastructure Project. There will be an examination of the issues relating to developing a government-wide electronic information infrastructure, designed in part to meet the connectivity needs of the first wave of service renewal projects and future efforts. This review will be undertaken in close collaboration with Public Works and Government Services Canada, Industry Canada and other interested parties, parallel to the service renewal projects. The Benefit The Blueprint approach is based on the assumption that an information-technology-enabled renewal of government processes and services will generate benefits for all involved, in addition to the often-discussed savings in resources. o For the public, service renewal will reduce time spent in obtaining access to government information and services. In many cases, it will improve these services. Properly used, computing and telecommunications technologies should transform the way many Canadians deal with the government, just as it has dramatically changed the way the public now deals with financial institutions. o For suppliers to government, the service renewal activities offer a number of benefits: the opportunity to provide services in partnership with government; the prospect of reduced costs through speedier ordering and payments; and the possibility of taking products developed and skills learned while dealing with the government and applying them in the global marketplace. o For employees directly involved in delivering services, there will be less need to re-enter critical data from associated systems, reducing wasted effort and improving the reliability of the output. Service renewal will automate mundane activities and reduce central controls or build them into systems supporting service renewal, resulting in job enrichment and increased job satisfaction. o For those who manage programs and support functions, successful renewal through an integrated use of information technology will result in resolving service delivery issues faster and thereby allow more time to deal with clients' needs. INTRODUCTION Objective and Scope This blueprint describes an integrated, enterprise-wide approach to renewing government services through applying information technology (information, computing and telecommunications). The objective is to transform government processes to better support program delivery to the public at a much reduced cost. The Blueprint also proposes to take important steps in planning and deploying an enabling government-wide IT infrastructure (government-wide electronic highways) to support the re-engineering of program delivery, administrative renewal and overall government restructuring. The Blueprint will assist managers and staff to provide high-quality, efficient services to their clients, while at the same time coping with severe fiscal restraint. The Blueprint will serve to reinforce the importance of managing human resources and resolving people issues. The Blueprint's focus on clients and enterprise-wide perspective will give front-line staff the information, tools and support to satisfy clients; in so doing, the Blueprint offers the prospect of a more human face for government services, to the benefit of both staff and the public. Individual departments have already begun to re-engineer a number of their program delivery processes. This blueprint will support their efforts and provide guideposts for future activities. Initiatives under the Council for Administrative Renewal (CAR) have demonstrated the potential for savings and improvements in administrative services. The Blueprint will give direction to these initiatives, identify further opportunities and help them realize their full potential. The Blueprint will be used to inform stakeholders, both in the private and public sectors, of this major business renewal and IT infrastructure initiative and to increase their awareness of the opportunities for participation and partnership. Finally, it is important to note that the Blueprint was created using group workshops involving many participants from across the affected areas of government. Subgroups addressed the specifics of each "architectural view" described in the Blueprint. They also produced a set of corresponding architectural principles to guide their thinking and to give direction to the more detailed planning that will be required to implement this blueprint. For this and other reasons, the Blueprint should be viewed as a dynamic document, reflecting collective views and portending further changes as the process of service renewal within the government evolves. The Vision The Blueprint provides a vision for the renewal of government services. Simply put, the vision is: Government services that are affordable, accessible, and responsive. The renewal is founded on the importance of having a client focus, sharing resources, developing standards, and facilitating access to critical information and services. The vision must be achieved if government is to - deal successfully with fiscal constraint; - adapt to and exploit the accelerating revolution in information technology and the convergence of information, computing and telecommunications; - rekindle the sense of true public service in employees of the federal government, both on the front lines and in the required supporting roles for delivering services to the public; and - reverse the public's deep-seated frustration with government services. The central underpinnings of the vision are listed below. o Direct Service to Clients. Delivering and providing easy access to services through electronic means. It envisions bringing services to the clients and providing them with "single-window" access for multiple services (as opposed to developing services with the convenience of the service provider in mind). o Transparent and Seamless Service. Streamlining and integrating processes across functional and organizational lines to provide transparent, seamless services to clients (as opposed to continuing with stovepipe processes that cannot interact with one another). o Value-added Service. Rationalizing operations and empowering knowledge workers to provide value-added services directly to the clients (as opposed to pursuing control-oriented solutions, well-removed from the client interface). o Continuous Learning. Enhancing the knowledge, skills and active participation of employees to ensure they can meet the changing needs of clients and provide quality services in a fair and cost-effective way. o Standardized, Interconnected Tools. Developing a standard suite of interconnected system tools, readily available to management and staff, to support decision- making and service delivery (rather than having a proliferation of different, incompatible and, often, proprietary computer applications). o Shared Solutions. Routinely sharing solutions and resources for common functions and processes and using departmental clusters to share common systems and services, reducing development, maintenance, and/or operating costs (as opposed to each agency or department developing its own unique solutions, at greater overall expense). o Shared Information. Developing and implementing a standards-based electronic information infrastructure (consisting of common information, applications, technology platforms and networks) to make it possible to share information and computing resources, as well as to rationalize operations enterprise-wide (as opposed to developing isolated islands of information). o Paperless Environment. Redesigning as well as automating routine processes in order to reduce paper and the need for human intervention (as opposed to manual processing or merely automating existing processes). Approach and Methodology The Blueprint uses as its analogy the concept of an integrated architectural planning approach, consisting of five interrelated architectural views. Each represents a different aspect of the way government services must be re- engineered. This model is driven first by business needs and uses the enabling capabilities of information technology. Underlying the overall model, with its five views, is the need to put a human, service-oriented face on the services delivered by government; this requires special attention to human resource issues in all five views. These five views, which are described in the chapters that follow, are shown in Figure 1 on the following page. Figure 1 The Five Architectural Views (Graphic available in printed copy only) Business View. The Business View establishes the strategic business context for the necessary changes and improvements to government services. This document takes an enterprise- wide view of government business and redefines it as seamlessly serving clients. This differs from the traditional multi-functional orientation of government administration and program delivery. The design of service delivery must recognize the situations where services are interdependent and common. As well, the Blueprint expects that solutions and delivery mechanisms will be shared and a more integrated suite of services to the public will be created. This approach will require a government-wide electronic information infrastructure. Work View. The Work View describes how the re-engineered government services will be delivered to clients. The Blueprint identifies the importance of moving away from the stovepipe approach that is particularly common across government. As work processes are adapted, so too must staff skills be modified -- to improve service by integrating delivery and providing choices, thereby ensuring client satisfaction. The Blueprint also describes a number of scenarios in which different approaches to service delivery can lead to reduced costs and improved services. These range from complete automation, where all work activity has been replaced by computer applications (e.g., using electronic data interchange), to client self-service (e.g., clients obtain service directly through a desktop workstation), to various ways of assisting service providers to better support their client interactions (e.g., permitting clients to use telephones or modems to directly access "experts" who are fully connected and supported by IT). Information View. The Information View reflects the critical role that information must play in renewing the business of government. The Blueprint identifies shared information as a critical common resource, with information delivered to clients in a fully automated and electronic manner. Examples of common information resources are summarized in the Information View. The Blueprint emphasizes the importance of automated collection and dissemination of information from administrative and business processes, in order to make it possible to automate and integrate such services on a broader scale. The Information View identifies the types of information involved in process automation and the ways in which information must be collected, managed and distributed. Under this approach, information will need to be accessible, secure, captured once and validated close to source, properly maintained to ensure privacy and integrity, and electronically distributed to authorized users. Application View. The Application View links the work processes and information requirements together. The goal is to have as much of the information as possible maintained in computer-accessible form. Applications create, update, access, and delete these automated information bases. These applications support the work processes by providing automated procedures and managing information storage and retrieval in support of service delivery. The Blueprint makes key distinctions between applications that assist the user in performing the work processes (workflow managers) and applications that manage the resulting updates to information files (transaction managers). Under the Blueprint, applications will need to cooperate freely with one another, have a consistent look and feel, and be modular, re-usable and broadly shared across the government. Technology View. The Technology View addresses the required platforms and network services to meet the needs of various types of users at identified work locations, thereby closing the circle on the five views. Having many types of IT applications means that different technologies have to cooperate in both operational and developmental situations. The architecture for the technology must also deal with various information bases used by applications, and ensure that the information can flow where it is needed. The challenge of integrating different technologies and information resources requires an infrastructure based on a mixture of standard components and modern interconnectivity tools. In this way, information technology will be open, capable of supporting distributed (as well as centralized and mainframe) computing systems, and create a more accessible computing environment. BUSINESS VIEW The Business View establishes the strategic business context for the necessary changes and improvements to government services. It represents the first critical step in the Blueprint's approach to renewing government services, i.e. asking the questions "what business are we in ?" and "how do we conduct business?". The Blueprint expects these questions to be asked from an enterprise-wide perspective, rather than from the traditional departmental, program or functional viewpoint. Taking this broader view is especially important in maximizing opportunities for restructuring government services. It is also important in making it easier to share processes, information and technologies used in delivering these services across the federal government and, indeed, different levels of government. The Blueprint reflects the need to re-engineer radically in the face of fiscal pressures and rising public demand for improved services. The re-engineering will involve focusing on clients' needs, working in partnership with other groups inside and outside the federal government, improving the efficiency of service delivery by using information technology judiciously, and reducing duplication. In asking the question "what business are we in?", it is critical to seek the answer from the client's perspective rather than from the organization's perspective. This will require a re-examination of the skills required by staff to reinforce a client focus in the delivery of services. Business of Government Services Program Services. The government exists to serve the public. Government services include programs in various areas such as agriculture, citizenship and culture, education and training, employment and labour, the environment, foreign affairs, health and safety, immigration, international trade, industrial development, national defence, natural resources, parks and recreation, public infrastructure, public information, regulated utilities, security and protection, social assistance, and taxation. Some program activities share common clients with one another in the federal government as well as across different levels of government. In addition, there is an increasing awareness of the interdependency of programs within and between governments. For example, recent discussions about redesigning the delivery of unemployment insurance recognize the need to integrate labour training and retraining. Similarly, provincial governments recognize the growing interdependence between unemployment insurance and provincial welfare programs. Administrative Services. Administrative services support the delivery of government programs. Basically, administrative services provide four types of essential resources for program delivery: human, financial, physical (materiel or assets), and information. These resource services commonly exist in all federal departments and, in fact, in all governments and organizations. Administrative services are closely related in that they need to be considered together (including making trade-off decisions) in order to provide an optimal resource base for program delivery. A key to renewing government service is discerning and taking advantage of the commonalities and interdependencies of program and administrative services. Management and delivery structure can then be rationalized within and across governments. In the final analysis, this rationalization must focus on serving the ultimate clients (i.e. the public) who are seeking relief from bureaucratic processes and who are demanding services from their government rather than from a multitude of departments. Common Electronic Information Infrastructure. In today's information era, electronic information infrastructure services are of critical importance to the delivery of government services. In effect, these infrastructure services have stretched information as a resource beyond its traditional role. The common need for these services necessitates a backbone infrastructure across the government. Elements of the electronic information infrastructure are listed in Table 2. Table 2 Elements of the Electronic Information Infrastructure Networks to interconnect internal and external clients, suppliers and users with the applications, services and information they require and share. Servers to provide processing, storage and information services across the network. A range of operating environments will be supported. Computing resources will be widely distributed for different applications and operating areas. Communication facilities to make it possible to transfer information reliably and interactively. A range of standard multi-media connectivity solutions supporting the government's enterprise network will be available. Workstations to access network-based services and information where and when needed. A range of user devices, interface standards, personal and workgroup computing tools will be supported. Services components: Network services to support distributing and sharing information as well as the processing capabilities for connected platforms. Infrastructure management services to plan and design the integrated IT infrastructure of the government. Standards management services to plan, develop, promote and monitor standards required to implement the IT infrastructure of the government. Guiding Business Principles The Blueprint proposes a series of guiding business principles that should be used to shape the renewal of government services. The principles are presented in greater detail in the Appendix. o Client Service Focus - Client needs will drive the design and delivery of government services. This will require a clear recognition that government programs must be responsive to the public's needs and that administrative services must support program delivery. Service standards, consultations transparency and flexibility will be necessary. o People Management - Employees, their involvement, development and commitment, will be critical to successful business renewal. A new management philosophy of commitment to employees and their development within a continuous learning culture will be necessary. There will be ongoing dialogue to discuss job structures and content, training, development and other essential issues in managing change. The resolution of human resources management issues is paramount to a smooth transition and the ultimate success of government services. o Common Shareable Solutions - Common requirements will be addressed by common, shareable solutions. This will require a government-wide focus and funding, to identify shareable solutions and roll them out to interested departments. Participating departments will benefit through lower costs of acquisition and maintenance. o Partnership - Strategic alliances will be pursued with other governments and the private sector. This will allow risks to be shared with the private sector and with other levels of government and lead to lower costs because of increased purchasing power. It will also promote innovation. Governments will benefit through lower costs and new solutions to common problems. The private sector will benefit from having access to a potentially larger market within the federal government. This access could be a springboard to other markets, such as other levels of government and export markets. o Accountability - Accountability performance standards and evaluation capabilities will be incorporated into the design and delivery of government services. This will require a new approach to defining accountability between the service provider and the client. Benefits will include a clearer definition of service levels and program performance and costs lower than those associated with existing delivery processes. o Enabling Technology - Information technology will be used to its full advantage for redesigning the delivery of government services. This should lead to reduced labour costs and improved (faster) service. It will require increased training for staff and new investments in computer technology. Other benefits will include new IT opportunities for the private sector. WORK VIEW The Work View represents an important second step in the Blueprint's approach to renewal, following a fresh, enterprise-wide look at the business. It proposes moving away from a stovepipe approach and instead refocusing on both the delivery of services and the organization of associated work activities on an enterprise-wide basis. Clients must be able to receive total service rather than piecemeal services from various component organizational units. As well, modern information technology will be used to facilitate better communications, organization of work and service delivery. The Work View provides a brief outline of the nature of government program and administrative activities, including their interrelationships and the similarities of the work processes involved. It proposes that the delivery of government services be consolidated; streamlined; consistent in outlook and procedures; designed to provide clients with options; independent of time and location; and measured and monitored for continuous improvement. The Work View also provides illustrations of more efficient and effective ways to deliver government services using modern information technology. The Work View will produce significant changes in the work environment for staff. For example, services that are independent of time and location may require employees to work split shifts, so that staff are available to deal with client needs from the start of business on the East coast to the end of business on the West coast. Adopting more integrated and consistent processes should increase the prospects for job mobility for staff. It will be essential to maintain the human touch when redesigning work processes to deal with clients. Work Processes of Government Services Linkages across Services. Many government program and administrative activities are closely linked. They have an impact on one another. For example, address changes reported by clients in one government program affect all other programs to which the clients also subscribe. Inspection findings of one government program may be important for the development and implementation of other programs. Program activities often require administrative support services. Within the administrative domain, for example, staffing action usually requires committing salary budgets and procuring office equipment and tools. Coordinating work activities horizontally across programs, administrative functions, and departments will make government operations more efficient and service delivery to the public more effective. In his John L. Manion lecture on "Partners in the Management of Government: Changing Roles of Government and the Public Services ", Mr. Marcel Mass observed: . . . there are now virtually no departments where problems are self-contained or where solutions do not involve more than one traditional sector of government activity. As a result, there is a greater need to find new and more horizontal ways of studying problems and finding solutions. Departments are essentially vertical structures, conceived in the simpler times when fields of activity, such as agriculture or forestry or transport, could be considered as reasonably separate domains. . . . Horizontal coordination is now essential and requires new mechanisms. In the administrative area, a good illustration of the need for coordination is resource planning. With mounting fiscal pressures and the introduction of operating budgets, federal government managers at all levels need to look at the resource picture in its totality and make trade-off decisions for program delivery. Unfortunately, many program and administrative services continue to operate in a linear, sequential fashion, without taking into account the need for horizontal coordination as well as vertical delayering. High costs and lengthy delays of services are the results. Routine and Repetitive Processes. Many common, routine processes are done manually and repeated within and across program and administrative areas. As a result, many government employees are unnecessarily buried under paper processing, having little contact with clients or appreciation of their needs. Automating these processes and re-using the information generated across programs and administrative functions will not only improve efficiency but will also free up staff for value-added work. This will reduce overall costs and improve services to the public. Figure 2 displays a process model for service delivery. As one can see, most of the processes listed are routine, common, and repetitive in nature. Guiding Work Principles In order to sketch out the Blueprint under the Work View, a series of work principles are proposed for shaping the renewal of government service delivery. Adopting these principles will help eliminate the stovepipes and improve service to customers. o Single Window/Seamless Service - Government services will be delivered to common clients through a single window and be free of functional and organizational barriers. This requires redesigning the way services are now provided, including a refocus on customer service and client satisfaction. To succeed, it will require a greater flow of information to and from associated service groups. Benefits will include improved service to customers and improved staff morale. o Streamlining - The process between the client and delivery of the government service will be minimized. This will require re-aligning staff functions, from task- oriented to service-oriented, and significant re-investments in staff training and new customer- oriented service delivery activities. Benefits will include good client service levels and lower costs, due to eliminating non-essential intermediary activities. o Choices - Where practical and cost justifiable, clients will have options as to how government services are delivered. This will likely require new investments and regular reviews of clients' needs. Benefits will include new opportunities for innovation on the part of staff, lower costs for service delivery, and improved choice for clients. (Graphic available in printed copy only) o Consistency - Where the same types of work activities are involved for different government services, they will be done the same way. This would require redefining existing activities, policies and procedures and it could take time to implement. Benefits will include lower operating costs, lower training and retraining expenses, and the potential for less disruption and increased staff mobility. o Location and Time Independence - Clients will have access to government services at any time from many locations, wherever such access is cost justified and warranted. This will make it possible to expand new automated services (24 hours a day, 7 days per week, if appropriate). New investments in technology will be necessary, however. It might also alter work patterns. Benefits will include improved customer service, lower costs for services that can be located outside of expensive urban areas, and the opportunity for increased employment opportunities in areas that can be economically connected through telecommunication links. o Continuous Improvement of Service - Services will be improved on an ongoing basis, with measurements embedded in the service processes. This will require new ways of measuring progress, customer needs and client satisfaction. Benefits include the opportunity for ongoing improvements and elimination of unnecessary processes. Future Service Delivery Scenarios To help readers understand the implications of changes resulting from the Work View perspective, the Blueprint includes six scenarios of how information technology could be applied in different ways in a client-focused business renewal process. It should be noted that, in almost all cases, there are already examples within government of activities or experiments within each of the six categories. For this reason, they are presented as near-future examples, recognizing that other variations will likely emerge over time. How far each service can go in following these scenarios will have to be determined through actual implementations, with proper consideration of such factors as nature of the service, desire of the clients, staff implications and the operating environment. The objective is to automate, streamline and network most work processes, using the appropriate IT infrastructure. This will result in paperless transactions that are seamless to clients. These scenarios, therefore, provide the direction for renewing the delivery of government services. Six scenarios are presented, as follows: (1) Auto-Service (2) Self-Service (electronic) (3) Self-Service (walk-in) (4) Service with On-site Support (5) Specialist/Expert Service Centre (6) Supplier Interfaces (extended enterprise) (1) Auto-Service. A client's own computer system generates a service request and the supplier's system provides a response, with minimal human intervention. (Graphic available in printed copy only) Example: At 4:00 a.m. every morning, a desktop computer in a large federal office building in Montreal automatically places a call to a computer across the city. The purpose: to collect news that will be in the morning's newspapers across the country and that will touch on areas of importance to the department's minister and senior executives. By 6:30 a.m., the information is available on the department's Executive Information System, by opening an electronic window. Meanwhile, down the hall, another computer is preparing to place an electronic data interchange (EDI) order to restock the department's central office supplies. The order includes all the information needed to complete the transaction, including payment on confirmation of receipt the next day. In both cases, arrangements have been made ahead of time so that minimal human intervention is required for routine transactions; these can be filled quickly. Other examples of services that could be delivered in this scenario: _ payroll and deductions (such as direct deposit of pay), and _ accounts payable (such as recurring payments for rent and telephone). Benefits include lower costs and increased speed of delivery and payment to both the service provider and recipient, along with reduced record-keeping and manual data entry. This could translate into less repetitive work for staff and a greater need for value-added, knowledge workers. (2) Self-Service (electronic). Canadian citizens, businesses and Public Service employees use workstations to access information and to generate transactions, orders and payments, resulting in reduced (or eliminated) paperwork and fewer approvals. (Graphic available in printed copy only) Example A: Instead of having to go to an employment centre in another part of town, a client visits an electronic kiosk at a nearby shopping centre. Using a "smart card" issued by the government, he peruses jobs that seem to match his computerized skill profile. A touch on an icon on the kiosk screen produces a print-out of local jobs that seem promising. Another touch on the screen provides a just- released schedule of new training courses at a local high school. He decides to apply for one course on the spot and, again using his individualized smart card, obtains almost instant approval from the government and from the high school. It's just like using a bank machine, he thinks, as he signs off. Example B: An officer requires some specialized supplies for upcoming field work. She logs onto a purchasing system from her desktop computer and browses an on-screen, electronic catalogue. As soon as she selects the supplier and places her order electronically, the departmental accounting system also completes the internal paperwork (after checking the officer's budget to make sure she has both the funds and the authority to place the order). The order is transmitted directly to the supplier via EDI. It's as easy as ordering books by telephone or fax, she thinks, and the goods will be delivered just as quickly and painlessly. Other examples of services that could be delivered in this scenario: _ placement agency services for hiring temporary workers, _ travel and accommodation services, and _ government database searches. Benefits include convenience to the user, lower costs and increased speed of delivery and payment to both the service provider and recipient, and the ability to collect data on purchases electronically. For employees, it will be easier to access information across government, allowing them to deliver enhanced service to clients. As a result, there will be less frustration and wasted effort. (3) Self-Service (walk-in). Internal and external clients seek information, goods and services by visiting common walk-in centres, where government workers use computerized services to respond efficiently and effectively. (Graphic available in printed copy only) Example: A businesswoman takes the elevator down to the main floor in her office building in Saskatoon. Instead of going for a quick lunch, she decides to stop in the local government business service centre next door. Her partner has been wondering whether it would be worthwhile to try to develop some foreign sales for their recently patented polymer building panels. But neither one knows where to start. "Perhaps they'll know in here," she thinks. Inside, she's directed towards a researcher who, after consulting a database of contacts, calls the building material specialist at the National Research Council in Ottawa. The business centre researcher suggests that it might take a little time to get all the information and perhaps he could fax it to her when it's ready. Two hours later, a three-page fax arrives. The first page lists four upcoming trade shows featuring new external building materials; one is highlighted, with a note in the margin from the building specialist in Ottawa suggesting that this has proven to be the most successful show for manufacturers of similar products in the past. The second page is a print-out from a Canadian commercial database and lists a two-day-old United Nations (UN) Request for Proposal for innovative, light-weight, all-weather building material for experimental housing for central Africa; contact names, telephone and E-mail numbers are provided. The third page lists three Canadian prefabricated building companies which have all established records selling abroad. A marginal note from a trade official in Tokyo confirms that the embassy will keep the new supplier in mind in upcoming discussions on joint Canada-Japan cooperation on new uses of polymer building materials for the Japanese housing market. Other examples of services that could be delivered in this scenario: _ Old Age Security, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Unemployment Insurance, Veterans Allowances benefits administration, _ training and skills development, and _ library services. Benefits include enhanced convenience to the user, lower operating costs for service delivery and improved levels of service delivery (faster, more accessible service). For staff, there will be greater job satisfaction, since information and tools will be available to respond quickly and efficiently to client needs. It will also be easier to work with colleagues electronically, via "virtual networks", reducing the need for endless face-to-face meetings. (4) Service with On-site Support. An intermediary group or agency provides multiple services, sometimes for several clients, maximizing the benefits of information technology and minimizing duplication and paperwork. (Graphic available in printed copy only) Example: A prominent Canadian is on the telephone with a government minister, agreeing to chair a special task force. The work has to be completed in four months. He is promised a small staff, a modest budget and "all the support you need". Twenty minutes later, after a couple of quick calls to contacts in the federal government, he dials the telephone number of the head of "Accommodations Canada" , a special operating agency responsible for providing office accommodations and support services for small agencies, judicial inquiries and, yes, special task forces. Three days later, while the Chairman interviews candidates for executive director and research director, the phones are being installed in his new suite of temporary offices five blocks from the minister's department. A technician is making the final connections to a small network of computers, the automatic voice messaging system is already storing messages, and the office manager is signing the delivery receipt for the Chairman's five boxes of critical reference books. For the next four months, the Chairman will only have to authorize one monthly bill for the complete suite of offices, technology and support staff. The same billing system and technical support facilities are also shared with several dozen other small agencies, meaning lower costs than the traditional "one-off" approach. Other examples of services that can be delivered in this scenario: _ staff and organizational planning, _ retirement and job assignment counseling, _ financial planning, _ government lands and facilities maintenance, _ site security services, _ office maintenance and services, and _ publishing and communication services. Benefits include greater convenience to the user, shared costs and improved pricing, and less administration and paperwork. For staff, it will mean less hassle in getting a new operation up and running. (5) Specialist/Expert Service Centre. Through the use of computer technology, internal and external clients can access "experts" in government directly and quickly, reducing the need to duplicate similar services and improving the rate and success of client response. (Graphic available in printed copy only) Example: It's 5:00 p.m., Tokyo time, and the trade officer clicks the mouse on her computer to transmit the meeting report on a just-completed international conference on new building materials. Seconds later, in the very early hours of the morning, the report arrives at six computers back in Ottawa, awaiting action from a "virtual group" of experts who meet as required by computer. By noon that day, the building materials expert at the National Research Council has electronically routed a summary of the report to a list of six Canadian companies which the expert group decided could benefit from three marketing opportunities unearthed at the conference by the trade officer. A businesswoman and her partner in Saskatoon receive the report by fax and have a request for more information on their fax back to Tokyo by end of day in Saskatoon. Six months later, the Saskatoon company is closing a deal with companies in Vancouver, Calgary and Tokyo to participate in a bid to provide a UN aid agency with portable all-weather shelters in refugee camps in a war-torn part of the world. Back in Ottawa, the expert group of building material specialists is commenting on a consultant's report prepared for the World Bank. A summary is scheduled to be faxed to nine Canadian companies which might benefit, including one in Saskatoon. The trade officer in Tokyo will also get a copy overnight by E-mail. Another example of a service that could be delivered in this scenario: _ a cross-country consultative process where professional association executives participate with departments using computer conferencing. Benefits include convenience to the user, and lower travel costs for experts and other employees. There will also be increased opportunity for carrying out activities that add value and for generating revenue. (6) Supplier Interface (extended enterprise). Suppliers and internal consumers are connected directly to the government's order and payment systems, becoming an extension of these systems. (Graphic available in printed copy only) Example: In the offices of six different suppliers, sales managers are watching the clock and their computer screens. In 10 minutes, and for the following hour, the federal government will be holding an electronic auction-style competition for the right to provide a year's supply of optical disks, magnetic tape and computer disks. It's an experiment, a bit like electronic trading on the stock market, but it beats shipping a five-pound document by courier every month to the government's bidding centre in Hull. One of the advantages is that, because the products are to be delivered to federal and provincial agencies in 16 separate geographic locations, there's a good chance that all of the suppliers will get some business, depending on how they bid on transportation costs for each of the regional "buys". And, of course, because the bids are made in electronic form, payment is made directly to the supplier's bank account as each shipment is received. Another example of a service that could be delivered in this scenario: _ an electronic news service, in which the information provider delivers news to client departments on a daily basis through direct links. In exchange, the supplier regularly downloads relevant, authorized government information from databanks. Benefits include convenience to the user, lower handling costs and increased speed of delivery and payment to both the service provider and recipient. For staff, it will translate into more demand for knowledge workers, to handle and interpret the electronic information coming into and leaving government. INFORMATION VIEW The Information View represents the third step in the approach to government service renewal and underscores the importance of redesigning processes and systems to gather, access and share common information. The two main objectives of this view are to - eliminate the need to collect the same or similar information more than once within a department or within government; and - provide government programs with access to information collected by other programs, especially where this would improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government service delivery. In order to achieve the above objectives, it will be necessary to give due regard to privacy and security issues, including assuring that information collected by law for only one purpose will not inadvertently be used for other purposes. As with other views in the Blueprint, the Information View benefits considerably from taking an enterprise-wide perspective. Information gathered for a program or service that is being re-engineered may, upon examination with a broader view in mind, be extremely valuable to programs or services in another part of government or at another level of government. The common collection, analysis and sharing of information within and between government programs and services will be essential in delivering government services to clients in a more unified way. For example, the Revenue Canada project to create a single system for corporate taxes, including customs, income tax and GST, is founded on the ability to share taxpayer information between programs and systems. Creating a single registration number and consolidated account for a corporate taxpayer requires having access to and sharing information. The Blueprint vision of increased connectivity within government, with other governments, with private industry and with members of the public reflects the view that collecting, analysing, using, managing, transferring and disseminating information will soon become an even more essential role of government departments and agencies. To play its proper role in the improved delivery of government services, information must either be collected originally in or translated into a digital format. The information must be shared and re-used rather than re-collected in different forms by various programs and services. Special steps must be taken to ensure the integrity and quality of the information and the consistency of its use. Government will also have to ensure that special precautions are taken to respect individual privacy, security and information access laws that have been enacted by governments to protect its citizenry against unwarranted information intrusion. Some of the information collected by government will have additional value when shared with other levels of government and with the public. For example, aggregated and segmented economic information will be of special interest and value to the business sector. There may be new opportunities for partnerships. Private-sector information enterprises, for instance, could disseminate government information and provide government with the external information it needs to manage and renew the Public Service, while public-sector institutions, such as public libraries, could expand their roles as repositories of government information. Demographic and statistical information will become more readily used in business, education, research and other everyday activities. The integrated approach to information set out in this blueprint provides a variety of benefits: improved decision-making by program managers and policy-making by government as a whole, at both strategic and operational levels; enhanced client service, especially where government processes collect usable information about clients and their wants and needs; and easier and speedier service delivery to all regions of the country, especially rural and more remote areas. In addition, information is a vital instrument of government accountability. The existence of timely and reliable information in electronic form permits the creation and operation of "virtual" groups of experts or decision-makers. These groups can make faster and more accurate decisions on, for example, the entitlement of individual Canadians to social benefits. It is also an essential ingredient for new forms of remote training and education. Staff will gain greater interaction with colleagues and easier access to mission-critical information. They will also be required to upgrade knowledge-worker skills through continuous training. Under the Information View, there are two types of information: that required for internal processes and, therefore, for automating processes; and that which has value as a common resource, for third parties. Some would argue that both categories of information residing within government represent a public good. Government information, in this way, should be treated as a national resource, vital to the country's social, cultural and economic development. Another area of growing importance is external information brought into government for decision-making. It may be electronic news used to keep abreast of government announcements and relevant political and business developments, or statistical or financial information required for the analysis of business trends and conditions. Or it may be reports, via electronic mail, of international trade opportunities from government posts abroad. Information Management for Automating Processes Information is collected for use across government to carry out its business. This information can be managed so that business processes related to delivering common support services over a networked environment can be automated. Examples follow. _ Client Information - profiles of the requesting individual or group, and their entitlements under the service offerings _ Service Information - descriptions of the service offerings available, the associated rules and guidelines, and the appropriate means of supply _ Client Service Order Information - descriptions of the requested services from the clients and the related status _ Resource Information - descriptions of the available resources to deliver the requested service and their scheduled commitments _ Supplier Information - descriptions of the available suppliers of the requested service or materiel and the associated contracts and agreements _ Administrative Information - charts of accounts, financial transactions, financial assets and liabilities, and employee agreements Managing Common Information There is also a need to provide various types of government information of common use across the government. These can readily be put into a computer-accessible form and made available via the government enterprise network. These include: _ directories of people, places, services and information; _ references and databanks on federal legislation, policies, procedures and guidelines; _ schedules of government events and periodicals (e.g., budget and planning cycle dates, collective bargaining, bid closures); _ catalogues of supplies, services and suppliers; _ on-line libraries of government reference information and financial reports; _ training and course curricula, schedules and provider lists; _ Canadian geographical, demographic and statistical information; and _ news media reports. Common information, once captured, can be shared among multiple users. After information that satisfies many requirements is identified, services can be developed and shared for planning, acquiring, maintaining and disposing of it. Common information is an integral part of the renewal efforts for re-engineering work processes and developing and sharing application systems. The public and special interest groups also have a direct interest in many of these information resources. Providing improved access to this information by using the government enterprise network will benefit many client groups. As with technology, there is a need to increase the use of standards for collecting and exchanging data in order to minimize costs, maximize efficiency, and encourage the free flow of information. The valid concerns regarding copyright, privacy and security are fully recognized in the Information View of this blueprint. Guiding Information Principles o Managing Government Information - Government information, in all forms (e.g., print, voice, electronic, or image), is a strategic resource and will be effectively managed throughout its lifecycle. Metadata (information about work processes, information, applications and technology) is an information resource and must be managed according to the same principles as information itself. Management of electronic and hard-copy information will need to be integrated. Coordinating and integrating the management of electronic and hard-copy information and voice and data networks will be important. It will be necessary to implement mechanisms to easily and accurately find government information. Benefits include improved availability and quality of information for processing and decision-making, resulting in improved service. o Data Administration - All government information will be subject to data administration to ensure common definitions, integrity and consistency of use. This will require having standards at all levels and maintaining a data dictionary and repository. Benefits include reduced costs to obtain and manage information. o Sharing and Re-using Information - Information will be captured once, as close to the source as possible, then shared and re-used by authorized users. This will require investments in new telecommunications links, common standards, and special precautions to protect privacy and security. Benefits include significant cost savings associated with eliminating duplicate data entry and the need to verify data. o Exchanging Information - Once captured, government information should be stored and exchanged electronically to avoid transcribing and re-entering it manually. This will require further study on who is responsible for maintaining the data. Exchange standards will have to be developed and implemented. Benefits include higher data integrity and reduced costs of collection and dissemination. o Protecting Information - The security, integrity and privacy of government information will be ensured by integrating information technology security measures with physical, personnel screening and other security measures. This will require security and privacy measures to be designed into all new information technology systems through an integrated set of safeguards which ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information and its related processes. Benefits include improved privacy, the protection of information from loss, and increased public confidence in how the government handles information. o Retaining Information - Government information will be retained only while there exists a business need, a legislative or policy requirement, or when it has historical or archival importance. Benefits include reduced costs in maintaining information records and a full archival base for future generations of Canadians. o Stewardship - Specific organizational units will be accountable for managing designated classes of government information to ensure its integrity, quality and relevance and to restrict its accessibility to authorized users. Benefits include improved ease of access to government information, improved productivity and a lower overall cost. APPLICATION VIEW The Application View (the fourth step in the approach to government service renewal) links the work process and information models together. The goal is to have as much of the information as possible maintained in computer-accessible form. Applications create, update, access and delete these automated information bases. These applications support the work processes by providing automated procedures and managing information storage and retrieval in support of service delivery. The Blueprint makes key distinctions between applications that assist the user in performing the work processes (workflow managers) and applications that manage the resulting updates to information files (transaction managers). Future Application Environment o The Blueprint is proposing to continue to move away from traditional approaches to an application architecture: from centralized and integrated to modular and shareable. o In the past, most applications were designed as highly integrated, on-line transaction processing systems for a given functional area of the business. They included, usually in a centralized location, all of the associated business transactions for that function, all of the related information files or databases, the required data capture screens, and inquiry and reporting capabilities. They became large, complex, expensive and difficult to maintain. The Blueprint proposes separating these functions into different application components. o In the Blueprint application environment, there will be suites of systems (consisting of modular, "Lego-like" interconnectable pieces), each dealing with specific functionalities. This future application environment will provide staff with the "intelligence" at their desktop computers to handle the information and the transactions associated with their day-to-day activities. While the skills required will be higher in many cases, challenge and job satisfaction should also be much enhanced. The different types of applications are described below. Application Components o Workflow Managers. These are used to guide users through the computer-based processes of requesting, planning, executing and delivering services. At each step, the workflow managers capture the required information, present and explain the options available, apply the associated rules, track the progress of the request and link to the appropriate service transaction manager when the preparation is complete. Workflow managers should have the same look and feel, independent of the type of service being used. o Service Transaction Managers. These are transaction processing engines that create and update the information that supports process automation. Each service transaction manager will be dedicated to handling a specific type of transaction. Each can generate further events to trigger other transaction managers. Functions of service transaction managers include: _ managing client information - maintaining information on clients such as identification, location and entitlements (this application information is shareable across multiple services); _ managing services - maintaining information on the nature of the services available, the associated rules and guidelines, and planning management information on forecasted and actual usage; _ managing orders - maintaining information on the nature, status and performance of a specific client's service requests; and _ managing delivery - maintaining the plans for and status of the methods of executing the client's service order. Service transaction managers will evolve gradually to become generic and discrete, dedicated to a very specific common type of transaction. By using middleware, older, mainframe- based applications can continue to be used. They can be treated as quasi-service transaction managers by suppressing reporting and other functionalities. Their transaction processing capability can be adapted to accept data capture from readily available workflow automation mechanisms such as intelligent electronic forms. o Supporting Productivity Tools. In the target architecture, a number of personal and workgroup productivity tools will be available to the users on a network through a standard interface on intelligent workstations. These include: _ document creation tools - a standardized set of functions for composing documents, supporting the full range of mixed media requirements (such as text, tables, diagrams, images and voice annotation, as needed); _ electronic mail and bulletin boards - technologies for distributing messages and documents to clients across the common resource services network; _ decision support tools - a range of selected analysis and modeling tools to support individual and work group decision-making. These will include standard spreadsheets with graphic display capabilities, as well as more advanced simulation and modeling tools for special applications; and _ interactive conferencing tools - functions for bringing various parties together interactively and, especially, for linking with support service experts over the common services network. In their simplest form, these are enhanced telephony audio conferences, but technology breakthroughs now make video and shared-screen conferencing at the desktop a distinct possibility for high-demand areas. o Client and Supplier Applications. To some extent, these are also part of the application environment. Certain program area applications (mostly resource related) can be directly linked to the support services, through such techniques as electronic data interchange (EDI) or sharing databases. Supplier applications can also be directly linked with support services through such techniques as EDI, bulletin boards or sharing databases. Typically, the common support services would interface with supplier information applications and order processing, order status management and settlement processes. Considerations for Development and Migration o As discussed, many work processes and sub-processes for government services have a high degree of commonality -- a circumstance well suited for modular design, sharing and re-using. Large departments may customize applications around core common workflow and transaction managers for added functionalities. A repository of re-usable modules should be developed for broad distribution. o Modular systems design will be used to develop the next generation of applications, leading ultimately to the Blueprint environment made up of workflow managers, service transaction managers, productivity tools, and interfacing with client and supplier applications using EDI. Guiding Application Principles o Sharing Systems - Computer systems for common processes or functions will be shared broadly across the government. This will require developing funding mechanisms for co-operating efforts and addressing change management issues. It will also be necessary to plan the development and migration of shared systems. Benefits include reduced systems development and maintenance costs since departments will no longer manage systems independently. o Modularity - Applications will be designed using modular components for basic and optional functions. This will require an organization responsible for driving and managing the common modules. Benefits include increased ease of reconfiguration, which will reduce costs and improve service. The approach should also shorten development time for new and reconfigured systems. o Rapid Application Development - To minimize risks in application development, use joint development teams on short term (i.e. 4-6 months) projects which focus on yielding a working prototype, which may then be refined and improved via successive iterations through to implementation. This will require a revised system development lifecycle methodology using Rapid Application Development tools. Users will have to assume more accountability for application development and will work as partners with information technology professionals. o Re-usability - Applications will be designed to use common, shareable components. This will require a methodology and organization to identify, acquire and manage common modules. Benefits include reduced development time for new applications and lower costs for maintenance, implementation and staff training. o Distribution - Applications and tools will be structured so they can be replicated and distributed on the government enterprise network. Using the network to maintain and distribute software should lower costs and reduce duplication of effort. Licensing agreements and partnership issues will have to be addressed. o Standard Inter-application Interfaces - Standard interfaces between application modules will be used to accommodate information sharing and transfer of transactions. This will require managing application interfaces. Benefits include improved interconnectivity and applications being shared more easily, resulting in lower costs. o Consistency - Applications will be designed to use industry-standard user interfaces, providing a consistent look and feel to the users of multiple applications and tools. This will require decisions and standards on user interfaces, e.g., Graphical User Interface (GUI). Benefits include lower costs for training and support and, over time, reduced costs for developing applications. TECHNOLOGY VIEW The Technology View, the final step of the approach, addresses the architectural (networks, servers, communications and workstations) and service (networking, infrastructure and standards management) components of the Blueprint. This technology architecture must deliver the common IT infrastructure services required to support the Business, Work, Information and Application views. The goal of this architecture is to allow for flexibility in placing user- accessible services at different places on a government enterprise client/server network. Finally, the technology architecture must enhance the "human face of government", not depersonalize the delivery of government services to the public. It must enable staff to serve clients better by giving them access to the information and tools they require. Components of the Technology Infrastructure This section describes the four components of the technology architecture of this blueprint: - _networks that connect internal and external clients, suppliers and users with the applications, services and information they require and share; - _servers that provide processing services, storage and information services; - _communication facilities for sharing information interactively and transferring it reliably; and - _workstations to access services and information where and when needed. o Networks The Blueprint recognizes the heterogeneous nature of computing platforms and networks in government. A multi-layered network, from local-area through to global networks, is part of the architecture. Networks are themselves shareable and can serve multiple layers of government or other partners. In order to maximize benefits to the Canadian public, the government will actively pursue alliances with industry and other governments to share the cost and the benefits of all networks, whether they are within a shared office complex or metro area or are global. A brief description of each type of network follows. Subsequent parts in this section provide more details on architectural elements, including networks. Local-Area Network (LAN). These networks will link workstations and servers of program service delivery locations that are in close proximity to one another, such as in a common office complex or building. Authorized users of workstations connected to a LAN will be able to use all services and to share resources on the LAN. Metropolitan-Area Network (MAN). In metropolitan areas where several government service delivery locations need to interact extensively with one another, such as the National Capital Region, a high-speed MAN will interconnect the area's government LANs. Wide-Area Network (WAN). This type of network will support high-end services such as desktop, video- conferencing and the exchanging of large volumes of data. It will interconnect various MANs and LANs in wider geographical areas such as regions. Though these may be distinct physical networks, they will be transparent to users as part of the government enterprise network. Government Enterprise Network (GEN). This global network will link the government's various LANs, MANs and WANs, so that users see them as a single network. Some special workstations like public infocentre kiosks may be connected directly to this network. Public Networks. Public networks, such as telephone company networks, may be used to provide access to employees working at home, the general public, suppliers, and staff whose offices cannot economically be connected to the government enterprise network. Since users will not be aware of the fact that a public network is involved in the connection once it is connected to the GEN, public networks will be, in effect, an integral (albeit external) component of the architecture. o Servers Network File Servers. Network file servers can vary significantly from one application to another. In a small to medium-sized environment, powerful personal computers with added storage and processing capacity will typically be adequate for servicing most day-to-day user needs. In larger installations, several high-end micro-computers may be required to act as file servers for the several workgroups involved. These servers will usually provide common processing (and information storage) to users and may be accessible from remote locations. Applications typically running on these stations include electronic mail, project management, scheduling, and sharing local resources. These servers will support the workflow managers as identified in the Blueprint. Applications can be shared by LAN users and workload management can be implemented to balance work and optimize the use of resources. Metropolitan- and Wide-Area Network Servers. These processors provide distributed computing at the metropolitan and regional levels. They typically support a number of work sites. Applications are replicated in multiple servers, using information that pertains to a geographical area of operation. Some of the service transaction managers may use these distributed servers where applications can effectively use distributed transaction management processors. Mail Servers. Mail servers act as a post office for storing and distributing messages, documents, and files en route to recipients or applications. The scale (low, mid-range, high-end) of the server that will be used to service these requests varies with message volumes, traffic and types. In general, high-end micro-computing resources, storage capacity and connectivity to the LANs, groupware, inter-application messaging processes (e.g., mail-aware applications) and various E-mail gateways are the major considerations in drawing up the specifications. Special Purpose Servers. Print, telecommunications and other special-purpose servers dedicated to managing the requests for specific components of the IT architecture will be used wherever they provide improved service delivery. These servers will generally be of the typical micro-computer class since their functions, as a rule, do not require high-end technologies. They may, however, manage requests for very sophisticated resources. Information Servers. This class of server provides various information services to users or to applications through the common services network. The services provided include: _ data warehouses - storing and retrieving shared information resources (structured, relational data); _ databases - storing and retrieving application information (databases and data warehouses are often referred to as database servers); _ document libraries - storing and retrieving documents (text and image-based, from computer sources or scanned documents); _ software libraries - storing and distributing re-usable software objects (repository services) for constructing and disseminating applications across the network; _ courseware libraries - storing and distributing computer-based training. Application Servers. The Blueprint has identified four types of application servers based on the types of applications (identified in the application architecture), their associated usage and transaction rates. These are: _ the personal computer - These are desktop or mobile workstations that, in addition to providing the front-end user interface for applications elsewhere on the network, can run many applications. These include typical composition or modeling tools such as word-processing, presentation graphics and spreadsheets. It can also support individualized workflow managers. These may be used when only one workstation is required in a program client area, when workflow is highly customized to individual users, or to support mobile users. _ the high-end workstation - The second level of processing uses higher-end micro-computers to provide shared work group services on local-area networks (LANs), metropolitan-area networks (MANs) and, in some cases, on wide-area networks (WANs). _ the mid-range processor - Traditionally called "the minis", this level of processing is rapidly merging with the high-end workstation. A distinction is made here to highlight some of the typical application services that are targeted at the higher-end micros and minis. These include the MAN, and regional and departmental WANs, described previously. _ the traditional mainframe processor - There will continue to be requirements to use mainframe processors for large, data-processing-intensive applications that may not be easily downsized or for which the costs and benefits do not justify migration to other platforms. They may also act as large data repositories and network service providers. These ongoing roles must be recognized on a case-by-case basis and consequently lead to the heterogeneous aspects of the Blueprint over the foreseeable future. Departmental Servers. Departmental servers provide centralized processing resources for transaction management applications that are best organized around a single consolidated database. Note that there will be many of these "centralized" processors supporting the Blueprint transaction managers, as well as program area applications. They can be placed in different locations on the network, allowing the distribution of government programs and "head office" functions. External Servers. External suppliers of shared computing or information resources should be considered for delivering certain types of applications or IT services. These servers could service applications such as electronic mail, bulletin boards and EDI to provide an external reach for suppliers and the general public. These servers also help maintain security by isolating external client accesses from the full range of departmental user accesses. Conversion Considerations. The incremental fade-out of applications from central (mainframe) processors to high-end workstation processors (distributed MAN, WAN and departmental servers) will need to be addressed in terms of a case-by-case costs and benefits analysis. The following elements should be considered: o Communication facilities Various communication facilities are required to support the Blueprint's technical directions. High bandwidth linkages are required in several scenarios involving multi-media and high-traffic information flowing from site to site on the enterprise network. In other cases, public communication networks, such as those of telephone utilities, will be adequate. The following elements need to be incorporated into the communication facilities component of the technology infrastructure: o Workstations This section describes five classes of users and the related functionalities required by their workstations. Program Area Client. In general, government employees are increasingly using applications directly. Because of the extensive installed base of workstations, it is not practical to restrict the workstation and user interface to only one type. Practical considerations will prevail, but efforts should be made to reduce the number of environments to a manageable level and migrate to newer technologies that converge on connectivity and openness. Workflow managers may have to be customized to accommodate some workstation environments that may also impose limitations on certain tools or applications. Many program personnel will spend more time "in the field", and have closer contact with clients. Staff will increasingly telecommute, creating a need for portable, mobile, and home office workstations. Public Client. External client access must be included in the common IT infrastructure to support the delivery of program services. These workstations may vary widely and include home or office computers, mid-range and central processors, interactive television-based workstations that interface over interactive broadcast facilities, and touch-tone phones that interface through interactive voice response (IVR). Support Service Personnel. Empowered groups of support service personnel will be able to address routine needs in all support areas. They will be highly integrated with program area clients and work closely with them, either physically or through the network. Their workstations should support multi-media capabilities, including interactive video and desktop video conferencing. Support service personnel will handle routine transactions using workflow managers. All non- routine requests will be turned over to support service experts or resolved with their help. Training and support will use multi-media-based courseware and inquiry. Support Service Experts. These specialists handle non- routine or special service requests. In general, their workstation requirements should be the same as for support service personnel. They will have special authorities to use applications and information to address unique requirements or fix problems. The support service experts will be accessible from any other networked workstation. Suppliers. Government suppliers are a final class of workstation users in the Blueprint. It is only practical to specify interface standards (e.g., EDI) for supplier workstations, taking into account the diversity of environments in the business community. However, there will be several types of transactions, such as E-mail, bulletin board access and down loading, inquiries, and supplier data updates that will use interactive workstations. The use of touch-tone phones and IVR is expected here as well. Information Technology Services This section focuses on the three major services that will be incorporated into the technical infrastructure: networking; managing the infrastructure itself; and managing standards. Each is described briefly below. o Network Services In an information technology context, network services are designed to support distributing and sharing information, as well as processing capabilities for connected platforms. These services link government sites, clients, suppliers and other external sites in order to communicate, distribute or share data, or to access services. All elements under "communication facilities" must be supported by the network infrastructure. o Infrastructure Management Services The technology infrastructure has to be managed and coordinated as a common service. This includes: _ acquiring, managing and maintaining common systems such as workflow managers on a shared basis; _ planning and implementing new or extended services or features; _ coordinating security, integrity, privacy, audit and accounting requirements related to accessing, using and updating services, applications and information; _ issuing user access rights and related codes or devices; _ establishing and managing network service levels, including performance and reliability; and _ coordinating network operations including repair, maintenance and implementation activities for related equipment, software and communications services. o Technology Architecture Standards Flexibility, interoperability and portability of applications can be achieved using a well-balanced set of modern connectivity tools (e.g., middleware, work automation tools) and standards. In this blueprint, it is expected that both will be used. When the word standards is used in the following sections, it must be considered in terms of the range of solutions available from this dual approach. User and Application-Oriented Standards. This category includes standards that support the interface between the user and the application. These standards require the collaboration of five key types of experts: Delivery Platform Standards. The delivery platform covers a wide range of services. It includes standards for hardware, software and telecommunications network facilities. Standards in this category will be transparent to the users and remain independent from the underlying technologies. Where it is cost-effective and practical, the required platform migrations should consider the Open Systems Environment (OSE) approach. The Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology (IMST) will continue to manage the government standardization program. Enterprise Environment Standards. This category includes generic standards insofar as their characteristics apply to the federal government in general. It includes aspects such as security, ergonomics, documentation, IT management and quality. Guiding Technology Principles o Modularity - The architecture will use technology components that can accommodate expansion, upgrading and substitution easily with minimal disruption to services. Benefits include reduced development costs due to the "building block" approach. An organization will be required to manage the components. o Inter-operability/Connectivity/Portability - Information technology components will interactively work together through modern connectivity tools and standard components and interfaces. This will favour vendor-neutral standards and avoid unique federal government standards. Benefits include improved competition in the marketplace and lower costs to the government. o Distribution - Processing, storage and communications technologies may be distributed to multiple levels in the architecture, where appropriate, to support dispersed business operations. Local- and wide-area networks are, therefore, key elements of the strategy. Benefits include increased flexibility in locating applications, services and information. o Workstation Orientation - Intelligent multi-function workstations supporting industry-standard user interfaces are the preferred means of delivering end-user functionality. Benefits include reduced training costs and a lower-cost platform. There may be initial acquisition costs to equip users and there will be ongoing support needs. o Network Orientation - All workstations will be attached (wired or wireless) to the government enterprise network, with appropriately secure communications linkages to all authorized servers and users. This will require an investment in common infrastructure, especially as demand for connectivity increases from other governments and from the private sector. Benefits include reduced duplication, especially where networks become more standardized. o Infrastructure Management - The architecture will provide for the management and security of the technology infrastructure. Security will be provided through an integrated set of safeguards designed to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information and its related processes. This will require, for example, taking steps to protect the network from disasters, sabotage and failures. It will ensure effective planning and management of system operations. APPROACH AND ISSUES FOR IMPLEMENTATION Implementation Approach The Blueprint is a dynamic, integrated framework for implementing government service renewal over the next five years. It builds on initiatives already under way. The following six elements are critical to its implementation. o Community Leadership. Ministers and deputy ministers, with the strong and effective support of the Chief Informatics Officer (CIO), must champion the service renewal in government, recognizing that significant benefits will accrue to departments and their clients. Treasury Board policy centres will provide supporting functional expertise. The Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology (IMST) will coordinate implementation and provide support in business re- engineering and IT architectural design. o Commitment to the Vision. Leaders, having espoused the Blueprint's vision, will communicate and explain it to all government employees and will seek their effective commitment. This commitment, which will also be sought from potential partners, must be sustained over time, since it constitutes an essential ingredient of change management. o People Management. Strategies and plans must be directed towards involving and committing people; fostering open communication; involving employees in conceptual design and implementation and facilitating their shift to the new culture and structures; assessing composition and competencies of the work force; and resolving the human resources issues associated with the transition and change. o Partnerships. The implementation of the Blueprint will require an effective and sustained partnership among staff within departments. In recognition of the increased interdependencies reflected in the Blueprint, partnerships will also extend to other departments, other levels of government and the private sector. Partnerships must be pursued and promoted aggressively to leverage common requirements, to take advantage of specific skills, to spread risks, and to share experience, innovation and investment. o Forging Ahead for Results. The Blueprint represents an architectural framework that will be implemented and, where necessary, adjusted over time. To accomplish this, a set of service renewal projects will identify change management and technology requirements, develop migration plans, provide incentive through success, and begin a government-wide rollout. A government-wide electronic infrastructure project will support these service renewal projects as they spread across government. o Departmental Implementation. Departments will use the Blueprint in planning and implementing their own internal renewal activities. They will reflect their planned approach to implementation in such planning instruments as annual operational plans and information management plans, starting in fiscal year 1994-95. Overall, the Blueprint does not start at square one, but builds on existing renewal activities and policies (for example, Enhancing Services Through the Innovative Use of Information and Technology: Strategic Direction for the 90s, issued by Treasury Board). The transformation envisaged in the Blueprint will be achieved through continuous improvements. There will be ongoing measuring and monitoring of government service delivery. Key Issues o Communications. Business transformation can only be successful if all participants (e.g., ministers, Public Service employees, clients, the IT industry) involved in bringing about the IT-enabled future are consulted throughout the process of design, development, and implementation. On going internal communication is the first step towards ensuring a smooth transition of employees to an open and responsive environment. A well-managed communication strategy will heighten awareness, address anxieties, and promote the participation and commitment of management and employees to the change process. Effective internal communication is of value to client satisfaction and to the improvement of services. Consulting with Canadian industry is important to help it use the experience gained from government business for competitive advantage in global markets. o People Management. Successful implementation of the Blueprint vision of service renewal will hinge on the human dimension. It is critical that the people issues associated with implementing a new management philosophy and an organizational culture of continuous learning and service improvement be addressed from the onset. Moving the existing workforce to the new culture and structures, assessing the composition and competencies of the workforce, renewed training and development, open communication and consultation, empowerment of employees and greater accountability are but some of the challenges of transition that must be addressed. New competencies and enhanced skills (e.g., network management, project management, architecture and design, client service focus, team-building, etc.) are required for an information-based operation focusing on client service. Empowered employees will need to operate in a more open non-traditional organizational environment to provide value-added services. There must also be conscious recognition that change as a positive force must be introduced with sensitivity to the needs of people within the organization as well as those of clients. o Information, Technology and Operations. The key players must discuss and resolve issues about the privacy and security of information, standards for information and technology management, pricing and funding mechanisms for using the infrastructure, and developing and implementing common, shareable solutions. o Partnership with Other Governments and Industry. Common requirements and interest dictate that governments work together to seek shareable, cost-effective solutions in the delivery of programs to the general public. The industry has the expertise and resources to provide modern equipment and services to support the renewal of government operations. It also needs government business to leverage investment and enhance competitiveness. NEXT STEPS (Graphic available in printed copy only) o Communicate. The draft Blueprint will be communicated to interested parties inside and outside the federal government in order to refine the document, and to obtain feedback, buy-in and departmental participation in pilots. Distributing this document has started the process, which will continue for the next several months. o Endorse the Principles. The Treasury Board Ministers will be asked to adopt the principles set out in the Blueprint as a policy for renewing government services for internal and external clients. The Blueprint will serve as a basis for reviewing, adopting and promoting an integrated, enterprise-wide approach to the delivery of government services, following the consultations. o Review the Requirements. There will be consultation with groups such as the Blueprint Program Advisory Committee, the Advisory Committee on Information Management, the Government Systems Committee, the Council for Administrative Renewal, the Treasury Board Senior Advisory Committee Information Management Subcommittee, and the Treasury Board Senior Advisory Committee, on the requirement for resources, skill sets, methodologies, and governance processes. This will take place at the same time as the communication activities. o Launch Service Renewal Projects. IMST will work with departments and policy centres to select the first wave of renewal projects. The federal government will actively seek out partners in the private sector and other levels of government. Project champions from the community will then organize and plan project implementation; IMST will support them, as required. This will take place beginning the second half of 1994. o Launch a Government-wide Electronic Information Infrastructure Project. There will be an examination of the issues relating to developing a government-wide electronic information infrastructure, designed in part to meet the connectivity needs of the first wave of service renewal projects and future efforts. This review will be undertaken in close collaboration with Public Works and Government Services Canada, Industry Canada and other interested parties, parallel to the service renewal projects. Already, some departments are using this blueprint in planning and implementing their own internal renewal activities. The Blueprint proposes that departments collaborate through sharing experiences (both failures and successes), development costs and efforts, and solutions. APPENDIX Guiding Principles, Rationale and Implications Published by: Treasury Board Secretariat, Government of Canada Architectural Principles Architectural principles are simple, direct statements of preferred architectural direction or practice. They help establish a context for architectural design decisions and a common language for business and technology managers in making technology-related decisions. They address how the organization proposes to conduct its activities, and how it intends to use information technology to support its business. Like zoning laws, principles change relatively infrequently. Each principle states a fundamental belief of the organization that is understandable to both technical and non-technical staff. Each principle is shown with supporting rationale that relate the principle to the business drivers (i.e. improved service and reduced costs). Additionally, the specific implications of each principle, or impacts resulting from its adoption, are identified. The implications can be used as the foundation for developing specific action plans. Some implications are common to most principles and have not been identified explicitly. These are the: - need to review, modify or design rules and procedures governing the management, operation, and use of services; - need to consider the applicability across levels of government; - roles and responsibilities of the clients and service providers; - initial and ongoing investment in technology; - resources and skill sets required (e.g., specialist requirements); and - importance of managing people, sharing values, creating a responsive and flexible work environment, and investing time and resources in enhancing employees' knowledge, skills and abilities. Details on who should address the implications and when will be defined through the consultation process, as outlined in the Approach and Issues for Implementation chapter. There are five categories of architectural principles that correspond to the five architectural views. - Business principles govern the overall architecture. - Work principles guide how information technology should support the work organization. - Information principles guide how information resources will be used and managed. - Application principles guide how applications will be constructed, implemented and managed. - Technology principles guide how the technology components will be selected, acquired, assembled and managed. Business Principles Client Service Focus - Client needs will drive the design and delivery of government services. Rationale - Quality of service (as judged by clients) is a key measure of government and is the most visible. - It reflects the intention to improve client service. Implications - Requires publicly available service standards, linked to costs of providing services. - Need to closely align client expectations with the capacity to provide these services. - Need to communicate service standards and manage services accordingly. - Need to consult clients on a continuous basis. - Clients increasingly expect technology to be used to deliver services. - Services must be accessible in the official languages of Canada. People Management - Employees, their involvement, development and commitment, will be critical to successful business renewal. Rationale - Securing employee participation and commitment and resolving people management issues are key to successfully transforming business. Employees, with their knowledge, are well-positioned to know what the client requires and are vital for implementing re-engineered processes and improving service delivery. - Employee participation during business renewal provides the opportunity for employees to link their competencies, development and career aspirations with the direction of the organization. Implications - Need active employee consultation, involvement and participation on the team throughout the renewal process, i.e. from design to implementation. - Need open, honest and timely communication with all employees and consultation with their bargaining agents. - Need a rigorous and thorough analysis of the human resources implications, strategies and costs as a prerequisite to project approval. Human resources specialists must be fully involved in all projects from the initial phase to help identify the full range of human resources issues arising from the re-engineering and to contribute actively to their resolution. - Departmental management must provide an atmosphere of continuous learning and development in a flexible and responsive work environment. - Resolving the full range of human resources management issues will take time and money. Common Shareable Solutions - Common requirements will be addressed by common, shareable solutions. Rationale - Avoids re-inventing the wheel, thus reducing costs. - Provides an opportunity for cost reductions in retraining and duplication of work. - Supports mobility of staff and, thus, using them more effectively. Implications - Requires standards to facilitate sharing in many areas. - Requires modular government services. - Need a government-wide mechanism to identify common requirements and to promote innovation and common, shareable solutions. - Implementation will take time. Partnership - Strategic alliances will be pursued with other governments and the private sector. Rationale - Yields more cost-effective solutions by using other parties who have specific skills that the government does not or who have common requirements. - Leverages broader opportunities for common, shareable solutions by: - using a third-party investment capacity and - forming innovative relationships. Implications - Need a policy framework that is supportive while protecting basic governmental contracting principles (openness, transparency, accessibility, equity). - Need a mechanism for finding partnership opportunities and for identifying and selecting partners. - Need to establish roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities of partners, including standards of service. - Need to manage ongoing relationships with our strategic partners. - Need to provide appropriate safeguards for privacy, security and access. - Official language requirements must be taken into account when evaluating and implementing partnership opportunities. Accountability - Accountability performance standards and evaluation capabilities will be incorporated into the design and delivery of government services. Rationale - Reduces the direct labour costs and the overhead associated with a separate control system. - Provides the foundation for improving service. Implications - Need to clearly define a notion of accountability that is suitable for the service provider and the user. - Need to report actual performance against established service standards. - Requires a mechanism to ensure that the appropriate metrics are gathered. Enabling Technology - Information technology will be used to its full advantage for redesigning the delivery of government services. Rationale - Reduces direct labour costs for manually intensive tasks and the associated overhead costs for management, support and facilities. - Improves service (quicker response, reduced errors, collection of better management information and accessibility of information). - Improves service by enabling employees to move to more value-added, knowledge-based functions. Implications - Need an ongoing capability to identify, evaluate, promote and exploit the opportunities of enabling technology across government. - Need to encourage innovation and early, direct involvement of affected Public Service employees in designing and implementing re-engineered business processes. - Need standards. - Need a (re)skilling program to ensure employees can make the best use of enabling technologies. Work Principles Single Window/Seamless Service - Government services will be delivered to common clients through a single window and be free of functional and organizational barriers. Rationale - Improves service since clients would no longer have to deal with several different administrative functions, programs, and departments in order to complete a transaction. Implications - Requires a concentrated focus on customer service. - Requires commitment of the entire organization to the concept because of the potential impact on existing organizational structures. - Requires active management of relationships with other single-window services, providers and external parties. - Requires rules and procedures for service delivery and standards for level of service to guide the operations of the single-window concept. - Necessitates establishing new cooperative networks and communication flows. - Requires longer term adjustment to organizational structures to obtain maximum benefits from single-window client service delivery. - Does not prevent specialized service where warranted. Streamlining - The process between the client and delivery of the government service will be minimized. Rationale - Reduces costs for both the client and service provider by eliminating intermediate processes that do not add value once the technology is in place. - Improves service to the client by focusing on tasks that contribute to meeting the client's needs. Implications - Need to align personnel with client requirements rather than to process tasks. - Need to consider accountability issues when streamlining the service. - Need to re-invest time or financial dollar savings from streamlined processes into desirable new activities. - Has an impact on existing jobs and responsibilities, which must be redefined in the light of the new processes. - Services must have a consistent look and feel for direct access and self-service. Choices - Where practical and cost justifiable, clients will have options as to how government services are delivered. Rationale - Improves service by allowing the client to choose a system best suited to his or her need from a range of affordable service delivery options. Implications - Need a feedback mechanism to understand changes in client preferences and requirements. - Need to assess the costs and benefits of new and existing service delivery options. - Need performance measures to compare the quality of service delivery options. - Requires an investment in network technology which supports multiple end-user delivery alternatives. Consistency - Where the same types of work activities are involved for different government services, they will be done the same way. Rationale - Reduces costs by - eliminating administrative or program processes that contribute no added value; - reducing process design, implementation, maintenance and training for different work activities; and - promoting common applications, which will allow Public Service employees to move more easily across the government. Implications - Requires common terminology, definitions and transactions. - Need policies and procedures for the transformed processes, particularly for staff redeployment in common functional areas. - Will be easier to transform services with a consistent look and feel into "seamless" processes. - Processes and activities that do not add value will be eliminated. - Implementation will take time due to difficulty in obtaining consensus across multiple departments involved in common delivery functions. Location and Time Independence - Clients will have access to government services at any time from many locations, wherever such access is cost justified and warranted. Rationale - Provides a basis for reducing such costs as real property, accommodation and transportation by focusing on low-cost geographical locations and IT-enabled network applications. - Improves service since the client accesses services when it is convenient. Implications - Need to provide authorized individuals with tools and access privileges to communicate through the network. - Need well-defined service standards to make service independent of location and time. - Need to address the requirements of clients with special needs. - Requires investment in the telecommunication/computer network and its linkages. - Automated services must be provided in both official languages. Continuous Improvement of Service - Services will be improved on an ongoing basis, with measurements embedded in the service processes. Rationale - Defined service levels are essential to enabling line managers to respond to continuous reductions in operating budgets by making appropriate investments in technology and in pre-determined service levels. - Improved service is not just a one-time occurrence, but occurs continuously. Implications - Need to review the relationship of the organization with external groups whenever the organization is re-engineered. - Requires a performance measurement framework that takes into account service levels and available resources. - Need to redesign the management framework to focus on client service. - Managers and employees must increasingly participate as team members. - Certain processes and activities may be eliminated. Information Principles Managing Government Information - Government information, in all forms (e.g., print, voice, electronic, or image), is a strategic resource and will be effectively managed throughout its lifecycle. Rationale - Improves service by - enhancing the availability and quality of information for processing transactions and decision-making; and - providing clients and service providers with the information they need, in a variety of media and forms. Implications - Need to effectively manage both government information and its "metadata" (information about information, including the work processes associated with information, information itself, and the supporting applications and technology). - Need to establish the accountabilities and service standards for managing information and metadata. - Need to be able to classify and define data and metadata. - Need directory services to provide clients with a secure, simple, and accurate way of finding government information and need repository services to store metadata. - Need policy guidance on production, pricing and publication of government information, including Crown copyrights. - Need to integrate the management of electronic and hard- copy information and of voice and data networks. - Need legislation and policies to facilitate appropriate public access to government information through a diversity of sources (i.e. libraries, private sector information industry and networks). - Need applications and technology infrastructures capable of storing, transporting and processing information in multiple forms and media. Data Administration - All government information will be subject to data administration to ensure common definitions, integrity and consistency of use. Rationale - Enhances service through improved quality and consistency of information and improves overall effectiveness of management information systems. - Reduces costs by making it easier and more efficient to manage information. - Supports capturing data only once, and sharing solutions and timely, accurate data for common process requirements. Implications - Need a data dictionary and a repository. - Need to maintain a comprehensive catalogue of standard data definitions. - Need a mechanism to access the standard information definitions and communicate them to system developers. - Requires common data standards across all levels in the information architecture of government service delivery. Sharing and Re-using Information - Information will be captured once, as close to the source as possible, then shared and re-used by authorized users. Rationale - Reduces costs by - eliminating duplicate data capture and reducing errors resulting from transcription and re-entry; - improving the consistency of information so it can be shared and re-used, eliminating duplicate data capture and storage; and - improving the quality of information through increased standardization. This improvement decreases the need to reconcile inconsistent information and reduces the risks of poor decisions based on erroneous information. - Improves service by reducing the burden on clients of having to provide information that has already been captured. Implications - Need an applications and technology infrastructure to support electronic transmission of information from point of capture to point of use. - Need a technology infrastructure and tools to enable users to locate and access all of the information they require for their work. - Need government-wide standards for describing and defining common and specific information. - Need to define the requirements of users to access information. - Need to protect the privacy and security of information in accordance with the relevant legislation and best management practices. - Common and specific information must conform to government-wide models and standards. - Must ensure that information is accessible and that quality of information is maintained. Exchanging Information - Once captured, government information should be stored and exchanged electronically to avoid transcribing and re-entering it manually. Rationale - Produces savings from reduced paper usage and paper storage, improved productivity, reduced error rates in entering data and less need for reconciliation. - Improves service because the necessary information will be readily available with more assured integrity. Implications - Need to provide the appropriate security and confidentiality of information so that only authorized users who have a need to know can access data. - Need data interchange standards and a common network to access data. - Need a policy addressing who is responsible for maintaining the data. - Electronic information exchange may affect the organization of work. Protecting Information - The security, integrity and privacy of government information will be ensured by integrating information technology security measures with physical, personnel screening and other security measures. Rationale - Reduces costs by protecting information from loss, damage, unauthorized access or alteration and lowers the expense of recovering information. Implications - Need to incorporate an integrated approach to ensuring the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information and related processes when designing information systems and technology. - Need security and backup mechanisms. - Need low cost security solutions for LAN-based systems. Retaining Information - Government information will be retained only while there exists a business need, a legislative or policy requirement, or when it has historical or archival importance. Rationale - Reduces costs by eliminating the storage and management of information that is no longer required. - Improves service by ensuring that required information is available when needed, that obsolete information is disposed of and that information of enduring value is preserved. Implications - Must consider retention and disposition as part of the lifecycle of information management. - Must incorporate the requirements for retention and disposal when designing information systems and technology. - Must provide services for archival storage and disposal of information. Stewardship - Specific organizational units will be accountable for managing designated classes of government information to ensure its integrity, quality and relevance and restrict its accessibility to authorized users. Rationale - Improves service by - equipping managers and staff with reliable, accessible information; and - giving clients appropriate access to information and enabling service providers to deliver responsive services. - Reduces cost. By improving productivity, it gives the empowered employee the information necessary to perform duties. Implications - Must define the role of custodian and to develop appropriate accountability frameworks. - Need performance standards to measure the effectiveness of the custodian's role. - Need to define the standards for information exchange (e.g., magnetic, EDI). - Need to define the information that will be made accessible to various service providers. - Requires a policy addressing who owns the data. - Need directory services to facilitate access to the necessary data. - Access must be provided regardless of the physical location or the form of the information. - Need to manage access to information in conformance with Treasury Board policies. Application Principles Sharing Systems - Computer systems for common processes or functions will be shared broadly across the government. Rationale - Reduces systems development and maintenance costs since departments would no longer manage systems independently. - Improves service through better "product" management and improved capability for sharing information. Implications - Need to establish a user-focused management framework with clearly defined accountabilities for shared systems. - Need to address change management considerations. - Need funding mechanisms for cooperative efforts. - Need to plan and co-ordinate the development and migration of shared applications. - Need to consider factors such as the departments' operating needs and investments in existing systems. - Implementation will take time. Modularity - Applications will be designed using modular components for basic and optional functions. Rationale - Reduces costs by - promoting sharing and common solutions; - making each application cheaper and quicker to develop and maintain; and - facilitating new ways of doing business through easy reconfiguration of system components. Implications - Need to determine the criteria to identify application modules. - Need to promote awareness of the basic modules. - Need to promote system design approaches that ensure modularity and separation of application functions. - Requires an organization and mechanism to drive and manage the use of modular application components. - Must be able to recognize both common and unique requirements of clients. - Pre-packaged applications will be preferred over custom development wherever they are available and cost-effective. - The functional separation should be invisible to the user. Rapid Application Development - To minimize risks in application development, use joint development teams on short term (i.e. 4-6 months) projects which focus on yielding a working prototype, which may then be refined and improved via successive iterations through to implementation. Rationale - Reduces costs by forcing out unnecessary and costly functionality and design changes, thereby avoiding time delays and cost overruns. - Reduces cost of failure by providing decision points at each successive prototype stage. - Improves service by having clients and information technology professionals work closely together as a team in developing applications and by providing clients with systems which can meet their essential needs over a short period of time. Implications - Users will assume more accountability for application development. - Need Rapid Application Development tools to provide fast prototyping across multiple platforms. - Need a revised system development lifecycle methodology which will support this iterative approach. - Need change in approach in departments which would encourage client and information technology partnerships within tight and demanding timeframes. - IT professionals will need to develop expertise required to manage rapid application development projects. Re-usability - Applications will be designed to use common, shareable components. Rationale - Reduces costs by - facilitating re-usability, which promotes the efficient use of resources and minimizes redundancy; and - shortening the time required to develop and maintain applications. Implications - Need a methodology and an accountable organization to identify, acquire and manage common modules. - Need to identify who is responsible for maintaining modules. - Need a repository for common modules and documentation. - Need to identify common requirements that can be met via common, shared components, recognizing that there are some unique client requirements that cannot be met this way. - Using common modules will significantly affect the existing IT development process. Distribution - Applications and tools will be structured so they can be replicated and distributed on the government enterprise network. Rationale - Reduces costs by providing applications that are easily distributed and maintained using the network. - Improves service by providing clients with the appropriate applications when they need them. Implications - Need to define the architectural levels and the application environments they support. - Need to consider all associated costs and management issues of distribution. - Need to consider the various criteria to determine the placement of applications. - Need to classify, organize, distribute and manage applications based on their scope of use. - Need to provide access to applications regardless of where they are located physically. - Need to address issues about licensing, partnerships and sharing agreements for applications. - It may be desirable to distribute applications physically to improve accessibility. - Applications may reside on different platforms and process in an individual or cooperative fashion. - More controls, such as procedures for backup and recovery, may be required due to the more highly dispersed environment. Standard Inter-application Interfaces - Standard interfaces between application modules will be used to accommodate information sharing and transfer of transactions. Rationale - Reduces costs and improves service by - promoting sharing and re-usability; - promoting connectivity and integration; and - maintaining modularity. Implications - Need application programming interface (API) standards. - Requires a process for establishing, adopting and managing application interface standards. - Requires infrastructure-level data management for inter-application messages. - Where appropriate, applications will interconnect across administrative functions and government. Consistency - Applications will be designed to use industry-standard user interfaces, providing a consistent look and feel to the users of multiple applications and tools. Rationale - Reduces costs by - supporting ease of use, thus improving efficiency; - reducing (re)training required to use new or expanded applications; and - eliminating a significant amount of coding and testing for development and maintenance. Implications - Requires decisions regarding the appropriate user interfaces. - Need to evaluate industry user interface products. - Need to define types of users and workstations. - Supports mobility of staff and, thus, using employees more effectively. - Implementation will take time because of the inherent difficulty of obtaining agreements on common application and appearance. - Need to separate management of the user interface from the application. - User interfaces should have options to accommodate unique or special user requirements. Technology Principles Modularity - The architecture will use technology components that can accommodate expansion, upgrading and substitution easily with minimal disruption to services. Rationale - Reduces development costs by specifying and using components that permit a "building block" approach to the technical architecture. - Supports improved service and operational flexibility by accommodating continuous changes in business, organization and technology. - Supports efficient use of technology by tuning platforms to meet local requirements and by allowing components to be re-used. Implications - Need to specify and develop standard components for application and technical environments and hardware platform types. - Need a mechanism to manage and maintain the components. - Requires a careful migration strategy with new investments. - Vendors must develop families of specialized functionality that can be used on the various processing components of the government (i.e. that are scalable). - Architecture must be able to take advantage of external developments. - Technologies that support scalability will be preferred over more limited choices. Inter-operability/Connectivity/Portability - Information technology components will interactively work together through modern connectivity tools and standard components and interfaces. Rationale - Improves service by enabling any authorized workstation and user to access all applications, services and data on the government enterprise network. - Provides cost-effective solutions for the government through increased competition in the marketplace. Implications - Requires standards for the processing, network and development environments. - Need to develop specifications based on adopted standards and common connectivity and interface tools. Solutions unique to the Government of Canada should be avoided in favour of open, vendor-neutral ones. - An increased emphasis on security, network bandwidth and telecommunications cost controls is implied. - Must be a means to interface legacy systems to new environments until the former are replaced or upgraded to meet open requirements. Distribution - Processing, storage and communications technologies may be distributed to multiple levels in the architecture, where appropriate, to support dispersed business operations. Rationale - Improves service by recognizing varying needs for accessing and sharing applications, services and information in different departments, levels of operation, and management and operating locations. - Provides flexibility for placing applications, services and information at different levels and different operating locations to optimize performance, availability, cost, management and other factors. Implications - Must address how to provide support services for managing distributed environments. - Requires a means for determining and evaluating distribution options. - Enterprise networking is vital to the operation of the distributed architecture. - Multiple-level distribution introduces operational and management complexity. Workstation Orientation - Intelligent multi-function workstations supporting industry-standard user interfaces are the preferred means of delivering end-user functionality. Rationale - Improves service by providing maximum flexibility at the interface with the user. - Provides a low-cost processing platform that can be dedicated to local user functions (e.g., word-processing, spreadsheets) or portions of shared applications, off- loading networks and host (server). - Reduces training costs by providing an easy and consistent look and feel for users of the workstation. Implications - Need procedures and readily available ongoing low-cost support for users. - May result in initial costs to appropriately equip users with hardware. - Business needs should drive the selection of the workstation subject to requirements for interoperability, connectivity and portability. Network Orientation - All workstations will be attached (wired or wireless) to the government enterprise network, with appropriately secure communications linkages to all authorized servers and users. Rationale - Improves service by providing users with access to information and tools required to deliver services. - Reduces costs by reducing the duplication of effort for planning, implementing and operating service facilities such as electronic mail, file transfer, development services, and directory and network management. Implications - Need to manage network security risks. - Requires adopting appropriate communications and inter-networking standards. - Some application and technology environments may require direct mainframe connection, but these should be avoided or minimized. - New relationships with other governments and the private sector will require more two-way access. - The government enterprise network must be managed as a corporate resource. - Increased requirements for expanded bandwidths and telecommunications cost controls. Infrastructure Management - The architecture will provide for the management and security of the technology infrastructure. Rationale - Reduces costs and improves service by making it easier to effectively plan and manage business and system operations. The architecture will provide timely and accurate information pertaining to work loads, usage patterns and performance. - Reduces costs by reducing the cost of manual (and potentially inconsistent) collection of usage and performance information. - Supports continuous improvement and change. Implications - Need to define who will manage the infrastructure. - Need to identify the basic requirement to ensure the integrity and security of applications, services and data. - Need an integrated set of safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. - Need to identify the multiple levels of security that the architecture will support. - Need to define and monitor management responsibilities for security. - Need to identify the resource and management tools required to monitor and manage the infrastructure. - Need infrastructure service standards and a performance measurement framework that also address non-technical criteria. - Need to develop a mechanism to account for usage and costs. - Need for recovery management across the network. - Requires a framework for auditability and accountability. **Graphics available in printed copy only